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Theories and Principles of Language Instruction
Timeline of Bilingual Instruction
Models for Educating ELLs
Theories of Language Acquisition
History of Methods
SIOP, SDAIE, SI
Reading, Writing, LIstening, and Speaking
Linguistic Factors - Timeline
Psycholinguistics & SLA Theories
3. Linguistic Factors
psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic factors in language learning, general linguistic theory, first and second language acquisition issues and theories
Conditioning; environment/teaching is main player.
1950’s & 60’s, 1965
Developmental cognitive stages are key to learning. Learner adapts knowledge and develops schemata. Role of environment is minimal, but can provide stimuli.
Language is a tool for meaning-making. Learner shapes environment by choices of goals and operations. Role of social context is central.
Language is innate and rule-governed. Learner is wired; environment is a trigger.
Processing Approach – Active Control of Thought (ACT) Model
Knowledge moves from declarative (I know this is so) to procedural (I know how to do this) knowledge.
Processing Approach – Information Processing Model
Controlled processing is short term memory; through practice it becomes automatic processing, long term memory.
Sokolik & Smith
Language learning based on associations made in brain. Learner’s brain key player. Experience and chunking useful.
Input & Interaction
Monitor Model –
Natural Order Hypothesis
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis – there are two ways of learning a second language – acquisition (subconscious absorption) and learning (classroom).
Natural Order Hypothesis – rules are acquired in a particular order
Monitor Hypothesis – there is an internal monitor that allows a person to use learned knowledge in addition to acquired knowledge by editing and monitoring.
Input Hypothesis – comprehensible input, i + 1
Affective Filter Hypothesis – selectively lets in input based on affective factors
Comprehensible input is necessary for L2 acquisition and modifications to the interactional structure of conversations that take place in the process of negotiating a communication problem help make input comprehensible to an L2 learner.
A learner notices gaps in his language knowledge and is able to modify his output to learn something about the language.
Gass & Varonis
Interaction, comprehension, & acquisition
Modified input and output that are the result of interactions between speakers aid in language acquisition.
Distinct from the L1 or TL, it is a system
/continuum w/ var
iability and L1 influence
Perceived Transferability Theory
The use of a construction in the L2 will be considered in the L1
If a word is more marked in the L2 than in the L1, it will be harder to learn. If it is less marked in the L2 than the L1, then it’s easier to learn.
SLA – Data Analysis
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
Behaviorist; similar characteristics lead to positive transfer; dissimilar characteristics lead to negative transfer.
Interlanguage; analysis of error production in order to find source of errors.
Study of language performance, not just errors; look at developmental sequence and acquisition of forms and functions.
Various – no one major theorists. Foucault one of the first.
Study expanded in 60’s and 70’s
Analysis of language beyond the sentence.
SLA – Sociolinguistic Factors
Leont’ev (but based in Vygotsky’s ideas)
When people engage and interact in environment, it involves their mental processes and develops social and mental tools.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The difference between what a child (or adult) can do without help and with help from another.
Ohta (but based in ideas by Piaget)
Speech spoken to oneself for communication and self-guidance; relationship found between private speech and task performance.
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