3. Linguistic Factors
psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic factors in language learning, general linguistic theory, first and second language acquisition issues and theories
Learning Theories
Skinner
1957
Behaviorism
Conditioning; environment/teaching is main player.

Piaget
1950’s & 60’s, 1965
Cognitivism
Developmental cognitive stages are key to learning. Learner adapts knowledge and develops schemata. Role of environment is minimal, but can provide stimuli.

Vygotsky
1986
Social constructivism
Language is a tool for meaning-making. Learner shapes environment by choices of goals and operations. Role of social context is central.





SLA – Nativist Approaches
Chomsky
1950’s
Universal Grammar
Language is innate and rule-governed. Learner is wired; environment is a trigger.





SLA – Cognitive Approaches
Anderson
1983,1985
Processing Approach – Active Control of Thought (ACT) Model
Knowledge moves from declarative (I know this is so) to procedural (I know how to do this) knowledge.

Mclaughlin
1987, 1990
Processing Approach – Information Processing Model
Controlled processing is short term memory; through practice it becomes automatic processing, long term memory.

Sokolik & Smith
1993
Emergentist/Constructivist Approach
Language learning based on associations made in brain. Learner’s brain key player. Experience and chunking useful.

Ellis
2003
Emergentist/Constructivist Approach
See above





SLA – Input & Interaction Approaches
Krashen
1985
Monitor Model –
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Natural Order Hypothesis
Monitor Hypothesis
Input Hypothesis
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis – there are two ways of learning a second language – acquisition (subconscious absorption) and learning (classroom).
Natural Order Hypothesis – rules are acquired in a particular order
Monitor Hypothesis – there is an internal monitor that allows a person to use learned knowledge in addition to acquired knowledge by editing and monitoring.
Input Hypothesis – comprehensible input, i + 1
Affective Filter Hypothesis – selectively lets in input based on affective factors

Long
1980’s
Interaction Hypothesis
Comprehensible input is necessary for L2 acquisition and modifications to the interactional structure of conversations that take place in the process of negotiating a communication problem help make input comprehensible to an L2 learner.

Swain
1985
Comprehensible Output
A learner notices gaps in his language knowledge and is able to modify his output to learn something about the language.

Gass & Varonis
1994
Interaction, comprehension, & acquisition
Modified input and output that are the result of interactions between speakers aid in language acquisition.





Interlanguage
Selinker
1972
Interlanguage
Distinct from the L1 or TL, it is a system/continuum w/ variability and L1 influence

Kellerman
1979
Perceived Transferability Theory
The use of a construction in the L2 will be considered in the L1

Eckman
1986
Markedness Theory
If a word is more marked in the L2 than in the L1, it will be harder to learn. If it is less marked in the L2 than the L1, then it’s easier to learn.





SLA – Data Analysis
Fries
Lado
1945
1957
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
Behaviorist; similar characteristics lead to positive transfer; dissimilar characteristics lead to negative transfer.

Corder
1967
Error Analysis
Interlanguage; analysis of error production in order to find source of errors.

Brown
1973s
Performance Analysis
Study of language performance, not just errors; look at developmental sequence and acquisition of forms and functions.

Various – no one major theorists. Foucault one of the first.
Study expanded in 60’s and 70’s
Discourse Analysis
Analysis of language beyond the sentence.





SLA – Sociolinguistic Factors
Leont’ev (but based in Vygotsky’s ideas)
1977
Activity Theory
When people engage and interact in environment, it involves their mental processes and develops social and mental tools.

Vygotsky
1986
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The difference between what a child (or adult) can do without help and with help from another.

Ohta (but based in ideas by Piaget)
2001
Private Speech
Speech spoken to oneself for communication and self-guidance; relationship found between private speech and task performance.